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Infrastructure

Radio/Microwave Links

Microwave radio relay is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as long-distance telephone calls, television programs, and computer data, between two locations on a line of sight radio path. In microwave radio relay, microwaves are transmitted between the two locations with directional antennas, forming a fixed radio connection between the two points. The requirement of a line of sight limits the distance between stations to 40 or 60 kilometers.

LAN Cabling

Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.

The following categories discuss the types of cables used in networks:

- Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

- Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

- Coaxial Cable

- Fiber Optic Cable

- Wireless LANs

Optical Fiber

Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters.

The per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second (Gbit/s) although 10 or 40 Gbit/s is typical in deployed systems. Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light. For short distance application, such as a network in an office building, fiber-optic cabling can save space in cable ducts. This is because a single fiber can carry much more data than electrical cables such as standard category 5 Ethernet cabling. Fiber is also immune to electrical interference. Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity, which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment in high voltage environments, such as power generation facilities, or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes. They can also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present, without danger of ignition.

Video Surveillance

Video surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment such as CCTV cameras.

Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores.

In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is particularly common in many areas around the world.

In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is particularly common in many areas around the world.

Fire alarm system

A fire alarm system is a device designed to alert people from visual and audio alarms when smoke or fire is present. These alarms may be activated from smoke detectors, heat detectors, or from a fire alarm pull station.

The control panel is the "brain" of the fire detection and alarm system. It is responsible for monitoring the various alarm "input" devices such as manual and automatic detection components, and then activating alarm "output" devices such as horns, bells, warning lights, emergency telephone dialers, and building controls. Control panels may range from simple units with a single input and output zone, to complex computer driven systems that monitor several buildings.

BMS

The function of Building Management Systems is central to 'Intelligent Buildings' concepts. Its purpose is to control, monitor and optimize building services. The potential within these concepts and the surrounding technology is vast, and our lives are changing from the effects of Intelligent Buildings developments. Building Management Systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems.

Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building's energy usage. If lighting is included, this number approaches 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. In addition to controlling the building's internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for monitoring.

In case a fire is detected, then only the fire alarm panel could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them.

BMS is used for linking to:

- Illumination (lighting) control

- Electric power control

- Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC)

- Security and observation

- Access control

- Fire alarm system

- Lifts, elevators, etc.

- Plumbing

- Closed-circuit television (CCTV)

- Other engineering systems

Communication

PABX Systems

A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key systems to large-scale private branch exchanges.

A business telephone system differs from an installation of telephones with multiple lines in that the central office lines used are accessible in key systems from multiple telephone stations in the system, and that such a system often provides additional features related to call handling. Business telephone systems are often broadly classified into key systems, hybrid systems, and private branch exchanges.

A key system was originally distinguished from a private branch exchange (PBX) in that it did not require an operator or attendant at the switchboard to establish connections between the central office trunks and stations, or between stations. Technologically, private branch exchanges share lineage with central office telephone systems, and in larger or more complex systems, may rival a central office system in capacity and features. With a key system, a station user could control the connections directly using line buttons, which indicated the status of lines with built-in lamps.

Call centers

A call center is a centralized office used for the purpose of receiving or transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. An inbound call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outbound call centers are operated for telemarketing, solicitation of charitable or political donations, debt collection and market research. In addition to a call centre, collective handling of letter, fax, live support software, and e-mail at one location is known as a contact center.

A call centre is operated through an extensive open workspace for call centre agents, with work stations that include a computer for each agent, a telephone set/headset connected to a telecom switch, and one or more supervisor stations. It can be independently operated or networked with additional centers often linked to a corporate computer network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs. Increasingly, the voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new technologies called computer telephony integration (CTI).

A contact centre, also known as customer interaction centre is a central point of any organization from which all customer contacts are managed. Through contact centers, valuable information about company are routed to appropriate people, contacts to be tracked and data to be gathered. It is generally a part of company’s customer relationship management (CRM). Today, customers contact companies by telephone, email, online chat, fax, and instant message.

Billing Systems

The Instant Enhanced Charging Collection Function (IECCF) is an application that provides a single collection point for offline events and charging information from various network elements. The IECCF correlates events and transfers them to a convergent billing system using a single interface to simplify integration. Its reliable mode of usage-record storage and transmittal to the billing system eliminates this burden of multiple interfaces on the billing system. As a result, the billing system does not have to negotiate reliability and failover mechanisms with individual network elements. The IECCF performs this function for the billing system, addressing service provider network-transformation requirements. IECCF can be deployed beneficially both by incumbent and green field carriers for new LTE and IMS deployments.
Networking

Switching

The rapid growth of Internet and increase in real-time and multimedia applications have created a need to improve Internet routing technology in terms of bandwidth, performance, scalability and delivery of new functionalities. Several proposals involving application of layer 2 switching technology to layer 3 routing have been made to counter above challenges. Noticeable effort in this direction is IP Switching.

The last couple of years have seen several major changes in the internetwork traffic pattern. First, there has been an explosive growth of Internet in terms of its size and volume. Seconds, there has been an increase in number of multimedia and real-time applications in the network. These changes have put significant pressure on the network to support higher bandwidth and provide quality of service guarantees. Till now IP has fared well in terms of scalability because of its connectionless nature. However the hop-by-hop packet forwarding paradigm of IP is turning out to be insufficient in supporting the newer networking demands and the routers are becoming a bottleneck. As such, there is a need for improvement in router/routing technology in terms of packet forwarding performance, adapting to newer routing functionalities and providing sufficient network guarantees to support desired quality of service. Another major change has been the introduction of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) technology. Because of its fast label switching capabilities, it is being viewed by the industry and academia as a promising technology for faster networking. However, most of the current applications are based on IP and hence the success of ATM depends a lot on its capabilities to support IP and other higher layer protocols.

Routing

The explosion of Internet traffic has made IP routers the bottleneck of the Information Super Highway. In order to improve the router performance, many new routing mechanisms have been proposed. Their common characteristic is a multi-layer label-swapping mechanism. It is realized by: (a) providing a semantic to bind labels to specific streams of packets; (b) using a protocol to distribute binding information among routers; and (c) forwarding packets from incoming interface to outgoing interface based solely on the label information, not the destination IP address.

Routing protocol

A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network. Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network.

Although there are many types of routing protocols, three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks:

Interior gateway routing via link state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS Interior gateway routing via distance vector routing protocols, such as RIPv2, IGRP and EIGRP Exterior gateway routing. The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), a path vector routing protocol, is the routing protocol used on the Internet for exchanging traffic between Autonomous Systems.

Wi-Fi systems

Wi-Fi, also spelled as Wifi or WiFi, is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data or connect to the internet wirelessly using radio waves. The name is a trademark name, and was stated to be a play on the audiophile term Hi-Fi. The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards".

Many devices can use Wi-Fi, e.g., personal computers, video-game consoles, smart phones, some digital cameras, tablet computers and digital audio players. These can connect to a network resource such as the Internet via a wireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can comprise an area as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square miles achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.

Wi-Fi can be less secure than wired connections (such as Ethernet) because an intruder does not need a physical connection. Web pages that use SSL are secure but unencrypted internet access can easily be detected by intruders. Because of this, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies. The early encryption WEP, proved easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later. In 2007 a new feature called WI-Fi Protected setup (WPS) was added, whose password was hacked by an intruder. The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks.

IT Systems

Servers

A server is a system that responds to requests across a computer network to provide, or help to provide, a network service. Servers can be run on a dedicated computer, which is also often referred to as "the server", but many networked computers are capable of hosting servers. In many cases, a computer can provide several services and have several servers running.

Servers operate within client-server architecture. Servers are computer programs running to serve the requests of other programs, the clients. Thus, the server performs some tasks on behalf of clients. The clients typically connect to the server through the network but may run on the same computer. In the context of Internet Protocol (IP) networking, a server is a program that operates as a socket listener.

Servers often provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the Internet. Typical computing servers are database server, file server, mail server, print server, web server, gaming server, application server, or some other kind of server.

Numerous systems use this client / server networking model including Web sites and email services. An alternative model, peer-to-peer networking enables all computers to act as either a server or client as needed.

Clusters

In computer file systems, a cluster or allocation unit is a unit of disk space allocation for files and directories. To reduce the overhead of managing on-disk data structures, the file system does not allocate individual disk sectors by default, but contiguous groups of sectors, called clusters.

A cluster is the smallest logical amount of disk space that can be allocated to hold a file. It is not necessary the cluster to be composed of contiguous physical sectors on the disk, it can contain more than one path or it can be composed of consecutive sectors in the path. This should not be associated with Disk Fragmentation.

Personal computers, laptops and tablets

With so many gadget choices on the market these days, it can be very difficult for consumers to decide where to sink their money. Laptops and tablets are wildly popular within different groups and demographics, mostly because they deliver specialized experiences to their users.

A laptop is generally characterized as a mobile personal computer - a device on which you can perform all the tasks available on a desktop but in a mobile, light, compact fashion.

Tablets, on the other hand, are currently the pinnacle of mobile technology. They are compact, very lightweight and extremely easy to carry. However, they do not possess the processing power of a laptop. Their functionality as a computing device is very limited, although sufficient for some people’s uses.

The PC is a general purpose computer whose range of features and price are making it useful for individuals. It operates directly, without the mediation of a computer operator.

Storage systems

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media. It is used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.

UPS

UPS is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically mains power, fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in batteries or a flywheel. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment.
IT Security

Internet security

Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing. Different methods have been used to protect the transfer of data, including encryption.
TCP/IP can be made secure with the help of cryptographic methods and protocols that have been developed for securing communications on the Internet. These protocols include SSL and TLS for web traffic, PGP for email, and IPsec for the network layer security.

Security systems

Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing. Different methods have been used to protect the transfer of data, including encryption.

TCP/IP can be made secure with the help of cryptographic methods and protocols that have been developed for securing communications on the Internet. These protocols include SSL and TLS for web traffic, PGP for email, and IPsec for the network layer security.

A firewall controls access between networks. It generally consists of gateways and filters which vary from one firewall to another. Firewalls also screen network traffic and are able to block traffic that is dangerous. Firewalls act as the intermediate server between SMTP and HTTP connections.

Backup

In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. Backups have two distinct purposes. The primary purpose is to recover data after its loss, whereas the secondary purpose of backups is to recover data from an earlier time, through a program that serves to restore the system in the previous operating mode.

A successful backup job starts with selecting and extracting coherent units of data. Most data on modern computer systems is stored in discrete units, known as files. These files are organized into file systems. Files that are actively being updated can be thought of as "live" and present a challenge to back up. It is also useful to save metadata that describes the computer or the file system being backed up. Deciding what to back up at any given time is a harder process than it seems. By backing up too much redundant data, the data repository will fill up too quickly. Backing up an insufficient amount of data can eventually lead to the loss of critical information.

Applications

Hospitality

Applications that find use in hospitality include point of sale, property management, central systems, business intelligence, eCommerce, loyalty, CRM, loss prevention, distributed order management, labor management, inventory management, and merchandise planning solutions. Our hardware design team not only drives the design and development of the products, this team also provides oversight of the manufacturing process.

Ticketing Solutions

To us, convenience means options that are easy to use. The web solutions department is a recently added asset to the services that we offer. As part of the web solutions department we offer development of online ticketing or provisioning solution systems applications, that can be useful for creating complex online orders for items or generating help tickets as part of some help & support solution.

Application Development

Web application development is the process and practice of developing web applications. Just as with a traditional desktop application, web applications have varying levels of risk. A personal home page is much less risky than, for example, a stock trading web site. For some projects security, software bugs, etc. are major issues.

An emerging strategy for application software companies is to provide web access to software previously distributed as local applications. Depending on the type of application, it may require the development of an entirely different browser-based interface, or merely adapting an existing application to use different presentation technology. These programs allow the user to pay a monthly or yearly fee for use of a software application without having to install it on a local hard drive. A company which follows this strategy is known as an Application Service Provider (ASP), and ASPs are currently receiving much attention in the software industry.

Web Development

Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site. Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, and social network services.

We offer you ideas for websites and their structure and design, up to a complete front-end and back-end programming, as well as additional support depending on the needs of your company.